If you need to break up your text with commas, dashes or brackets, it is often a sign that your sentences are too long and complicated. Rather than splitting up the blocks of meaning with punctuation, split your sentences to a maximum of about 25 words with one idea per sentence.
Round brackets can be used to explain the preceding item in the text, but use them only if truly necessary.
Square brackets can be used to make insertions in quoted material, e.g.: “The ETS [Emissions Trading System] needs to be reformed”, says Commissioner XY.
Beware of using too many dashes. 1 dash or a set of paired dashes per paragraph is enough.
Hyphens (-) are used to join pairs: the Brussels-Paris route, the height-depth ratio, etc.
Short dashes (En dashes, – ) may be used to punctuate a sentence instead of commas or round brackets. They are always preceded and followed by spaces.
Long dashes (Em dashes, — ) are no longer used.
Use only for very serious warnings.
use 'single quotation marks' to signal direct speech and quotes and too flag a word as jargon, while explaining what it actually means: The ‘subsidiarity’ principle, whereby decisions are taken at a level of authority as close to citizens as possible
use "double quotation marks" for quotations within quotes.
If you require further assistance, please contact:
Europa Web Communication
The Europa Web Guide is the official rulebook for the European Commission's web presence, covering editorial, legal, technical, visual and contractual aspects.
All European Commission web sites must observe the rules and guidelines it contains.
Web practitioners are invited to observe its contents and keep abreast of updates. More information about the web guide.