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Plain language alternatives

The main problem for anybody working in the EU environment is realising what counts as jargon. This includes staff in the institutions and writers in the private sector who tend to reuse the jargon from the EU source texts.

Working in the EU environment can make you jargon-blind. You might recognise e.g. ‘subsidiarity’ or ‘countervailing duties’ as technical jargon - but EU language is full of many less obvious jargon terms, influenced especially by legal/diplomatic terminology. For example, when did you last negotiate your accession to a gym or sports club, or go on holiday to a third country?

Additionally, in English - the original language of most web texts - there is the extra problem of false friends, mostly from French.

Find plain language alternatives to common EU jargon in our A-Z table of jargon and false friends below.

If there is no plain language alternative, then explain the jargon or technical term the first time you use it on the page.

A to Z – jargon and false friends

As a general principle use plain English when writing for the Commission website. The following list provides alternatives for

(1)   unclear names for EU‑related concepts

(2)   unwieldy expressions in English

(3)   false friends

Often, the ‘EU aspect’ of terms related to the Commission’s activities is implicit. But needs to be made explicit for non‑expert audiences: acquis vs. body of EU law;

We've not included here the numerous Latin expressions that regularly turn up in Commission texts. Avoid them where at all possible.

But one person’s jargon is another person’s ordinary professional language. So use the words your target audience does.

Words and terms

Meanings and alternatives



-          joining

-          membership

-          entry

accounted for by the fact that

-          because

a certain number of

-          some


-          so

ACP countries

-          Africa and the Caribbean and Pacific regions


-          EU law (the body of laws that countries wishing to join the EU must transpose into their national legislation)

-          EU rules


If used with a meaning akin to scheme, measure or project, those latter are preferable.

If you want to use action, then use in singular.

active labour‑market policies

-          job‑creation schemes/measures

-          measures to help the unemployed back to work


from the French acteurs

-          interested group

-          body

-          organisation

-          party

-          participant

-          interest

-          interest group

-          player

-          those involved

-          operator


means real or true

Don’t confuse with the French actuel, Dutch actueel, German aktuell, Italian attuale and Portuguese atual, which mean current or topical.


In English, this is used to soften a contradiction - it does not mean now

adding value to

-          enhancing

-          supplementing


-          additional funding rule

-          or change the perspective: national matching funds

supplement rather than replace national funding

administrative capacity

-          sufficient (administrative) staff and skills to … (implement projects)


Bigger than ‘fish farming’, which is the term most people are familiar with. Includes the farming of fish, shellfish and algae.

Aquaculture unexplained may be acceptable in specialist texts, though it cannot hurt to be explicit about what it covers.

In texts for the general public, definitely add an explanation. Even if fish farming doesn’t accurately describe the whole sector, it represents a large percentage of it, so this loose label might be permissible for communication purposes in some contexts.

as of / as from

-          after

-          since

assist at

means to help not to attend

Don’t confuse with the French assister à and similar expressions in other Romance languages.


-          (recognised as the) official or authorised version

autonomous trade measures

-          duty-free access to EU markets


biannual / biennial

-          twice a year / every two years

-          (biannual is almost always misused)

bi‑weekly, bi‑monthly

-          twice a week / twice a month

blue-sky thinking

-          clear/visionary thinking

budget (allocated to etc.), budgetary

-          spend or spending

-          the EU subsidises/supports X to the tune of

budget support

-          direct financial transfers to a government (part of development aid)

Bureau of European Policy Advisers (BEPA)

European Political Strategy Centre (EPSC)

-          the Commission's top policy advisers


calls for proposals

Call for proposals is the proper term, but it might need more explanation depending on the target audience:

  • EU requests for (researchers, etc.) to propose projects for funding
  • requests for project proposals from (researchers, etc.)
  • call for funding (scored highest when tested with website users)

candidate country

-          prospective/aspiring/would-be members

-          possible/likely/potential future member countries

-          country that is an official candidate for EU membership

-          countries that are candidates or potential candidates for EU membership

-          (EU) membership candidate

Technically: one step up from having the "prospect" (perspective) of EU membership, but not all candidates have opened formal negotiations.

Some candidates then move on to formal membership (accession) negotiations / the formal pre-membership process of negotiation and reform (adopting established EU law).

-          At the very least: EU candidate country (the shorthand form (without EU or country) is not informative.)

CAP / common agricultural policy

(Depending on context and target audience)

-          EU farm policy / support / subsidies

(Even the full term common agricultural policy is not widely known outside stakeholder circles. Only real experts for EU agricultural policy will know that term and search for it)


-          about


Bit of a false friend from French citoyen and overused in English texts. Calls to mind administrative procedures to become a citizen of another country.

-          the general public

-          individuals

-          people

-          nationals

-          Europeans

-          the person in the street

-          society

Citizens’ Initiative

-          new European petitioning system

And/or explain what it is, e.g.:
initiative allowing the public to petition the Commission directly on specific issues. Good to use the word petition somewhere, since this is essentially what it is.

civil society

Consider being more specific if possible.

-          interest groups

-          non‑governmental organisations

-          non-profit organisations

-          civil society organisations

-          non-government institutions

-          social organisations or groups

Civil society organisations – non-governmental groups such as trade unions, employers’ associations and other social groups



-          consistent

-          coordinated

-          logical

-          orderly

Not: in agreement with or accordant with


-          economic and social development

-          [geographically] balanced (economic) development

-          regional cohesion

-          regional economic development

-          social cohesion = fairness

-          economic and social cohesion = fair economic and social opportunities for all

Cohesion policy and regional policy are not the same thing (cohesion policy is wider because it also covers e.g. the European social fund)

cohesion fund(ing)

-          regional development/funding/policy/cohesion

(The idea of regional socio-economic disparities is not expressed by cohesion on its own.)


-          (body or group of) Commissioners. The Commissioners acting as a group.

come forward with

-          put forward

comitology (procedure)

  • committee procedure
  • committees through which national authorities supervise Commission implementation of EU law, etc.
  • system of national experts supervising the detailed technical aspects of implementing EU law, etc.

The official term is now committee procedure, though comitology is still used frequently.  


if necessary, add some explanation, e.g.:

  • the EU(‘s) executive (body), the European Commission

Committee of the Regions

needs explanation, e.g.:

  • the EU’s platform for regional interests, the Committee of the Regions
  • body representing local and regional authorities across the EU


"Common" is over-used in Commission texts, due to the influence of French. In many cases, it is not the most apt term for what it is describing - other alternatives are clearer:

-          EU-wide

-          EU

-          standard

-          universal

-          shared

-          a (one) single (+ noun)

-          joint(ly)


-          shared or common aspects/themes/goals

common organisation of the market / CMO / common market organisations

-          EU support (regime or package) for farms (for the e.g. wine market)

-          market management regime/mechanisms/measures/scheme

-          commodity regime

-          market organisation.

Never CMO

Communication (document)

needs explanation about what it really contains, e.g.:

  • set of (policy) proposals
  • recommendation for national governments


-          EU

(unless the legal difference between the Communities and the Union absolutely has to be made clear)

compatible with the single market

-          does not confer an unfair advantage

-          does not distort competition (preventing protectionism and stimulating economic activity)

competence (competencies)

-          remit

-          portfolio

-          brief

-          area of responsibility

-          jurisdiction

-          powers

-          authority

-          is an exclusive competence of = is decided by

-          skills (for a person)

Competence in its meaning of the legal authority of a court or other body to deal with a particular matter is used in the singular only.


Restricting competition or unfair competition is abstract and also the wrong perspective (a positive policy aspiration, not the actual practice). Much more concrete to say something like:
monopolies & mergers, price-fixing, (unfair) subsidies


-          competitive advantage

-          competitive edge

-          competitive position

-          if EU firms are to remain competitive


-          on

-          about

concordance (multilingual)

-          agreement (or consistency) between language versions


-          so

contextual help

-          mouseover help

-          or tooltip (but this is rarer)



1. to exercise power over/to be in charge or command of something

2. to limit / to restrict something

Don’t confuse with the French contrôler, German kontrollieren and similar words in other languages. It doesn’t mean to audit, check, monitor or verify.

convergence criteria

-          requirements for joining (the euro)

-          euro membership requirements

Council (of ministers)

Depending on context and target audience. Non-experts don’t know what the Council of ministers is.

-          EU leaders

-          EU governments

-          EU member countries, etc.

-          EU (farm) ministers meeting in Brussels

-          agriculture Council = meeting of EU farm ministers


-          within the EU

-          in another/different (EU) country

customs union

needs explanation:

  • no customs duties at internal borders between the EU member states
  • common customs duties on imports from outside the EU
  • common rules of origin for products from outside the EU


Decision (Regulation, Directive)

These are specific types of legislation, which experts will know and understand. For the general public, laws or rules is probably enough. But ask yourself whether extra information would be useful to the reader:

  • Directives set a goal that all EU countries must achieve, but it is up to the individual countries how they achieve it.
  • Regulations are directly applicable across the EU.
  • Decisions are directly applicable to either an EU country or an individual company, e.g. when the Commission rules on proposed mergers or fines companies for abusing their dominant market position.

decoupled (payments, i.e. farm subsidies)

-          flat-rate

Decoupled just means not dependent on production volume.

de facto

-          in reality

-          in effect

-          actual


In English, if something is delayed, it means it is late, postponed or held up, i.e. the time limit has passed.

Don’t confuse with the French délai, which refers to a period of time or a time limit or deadline.

delegated acts

needs explanation:

  • non-essential technical amendments (to EU legal acts, by the Commission, without going through the whole lengthy law-making process. Allowed by EP since the Lisbon treaty)

Delegation, Representation

-          (local) EU mission

-          (local) EU office

-          EU’s representative office

-          EU office in X country

Delegation in English implies a group of representatives sent for a strictly limited time span. Representation is too generic.


-          results

-          benefits

-          outcomes

de minimis aid

needs explanation for non-experts:

  • (the level of) subsidies governments can give to companies without having to get EU approval
  • small amounts of state aid that are exempted from Commission approval (no need for ‘undertakings’ to notify the Commission)

(most) deprived

-          poorest


-          exemption

-          exception

-          opt-out

DG Competition/other DGs

when mentioning DGs, consider explaining what they do or better explaining their role

Directive (Regulation, Decision)

These are specific types of legislation, which experts will know and understand. For the general public, laws or rules is probably enough. But ask yourself whether extra information would be useful to the reader:

  • Directives set a goal that all EU countries must achieve, but it is up to the individual countries how they achieve it.
  • Regulations are directly applicable across the EU.
  • Decisions are directly applicable to either an EU country or an individual company, e.g. when the Commission rules on proposed mergers or fines companies for abusing their dominant market position.

Directorate-General (DG)

Use only when referring to a specific one, and even then, only when the audience needs to know or is likely to know the title.

dispose of

means to get rid of something

Don’t confuse with the French disposer de and similar expressions in other Romance languages. Disposer de means to have something or to be equipped with.

due to the fact that

-          because


Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)

very abstract, essentially just the euro

never use just EMU


Don’t confuse with the French élaborer, which means to draft, draw up, prepare, produce, formulate, write up or develop.

electronically, by electronic means

-          by e-mail

-          online

-          computerised


-          cut out

employment opportunities

-          jobs


Process whereby countries join the EU. In texts for non‑specialists, use something more natural‑sounding such as:

-          expansion

-          joining

ensure the universal availability of…

-          ensure that everyone has access to …


Don’t confuse with the French element, which means part, constituent or component (of a structure/problem).

In English, it is an essential or characteristic part of something abstract, or more specifically a chemical element or one of the four elements: earth, water, air, and fire.


-          provide for

-          to be possible

-          consider

-          plan

-          propose

-          envision

-          identify


-          European job portal

-          online jobs service

-          jobs website

-          European jobs database (EURES)

not: jobs mobility portal

euro areaeurozone (no capital)

Europe (as a synonym for EU)

In general texts, Europe can usually be used, so that you don’t have to repeat EU all the time.

But when talking about statistics or the scope of EU law, you have to be accurate. So use EU if what is meant is the countries that are members of the European Union.

European Citizens’ Initiative

-          European petitioning system

And/or explain what it is, e.g.:
initiative allowing the public to petition the Commission directly on specific issues. Good to use the word petition somewhere, since this is essentially what it is.

EuropeAid (cooperation office)

-          the EU’s development aid office

European Commission

for non-experts add some explanation, e.g.:

  • the EU(‘s) executive (body), the European Commission

European construction

-          European integration

-          European unity

-          the EU

-          united Europe

European Council

(depending on context and target audience)

-          (at the) EU summit

-          (decision taken by) EU leaders / EU governments

European Political Strategy Centre (EPSC)

predecessor: Bureau of European Policy Advisers (BEPA)

-          the Commission's top policy advisers

European semester

needs explanation:

  • an annual 6-month cycle during which EU governments consult each other to coordinate their economic and budgetary policies
  • an annual cycle of economic policy coordination targeting growth and job creation

European social model

needs explanation:

  • European government intervention through redistribution, high taxes and high public (social) spending / comprehensive welfare cover, etc.

Europe 2020

for non-experts add explanation:

  • the EU’s economic growth strategy up to 2020


only in statistical tables, but even then add an explanation

  • in text e.g.: countries that joined (the EU) in 2004


only in statistical tables, but even then add an explanation

  • in text e.g.: pre-2004 EU countries or members


only in statistical tables, but even then add an explanation

  • e.g.: EU members before 2007


only in statistical tables, but even then add an explanation

  • e.g.: all current (EU) members
  • or just: EU countries (that implies the text talks about all of them)

eventual / eventually

means certainly or later on

Don’t confuse with the French éventuellement and the German eventuell, which mean possibly.

ex ante

-          upstream

-          prior

-          advance

excessive deficit procedure

needs explanation:

  • the threat of sanctions for excessive government deficits and debt (on countries seeking to join the euro)

exchange of experience

-          knowledge sharing or pooling

-          sharing experience

-          sharing or pooling or spreading information/ skills/know‑how/lessons learnt

-          information exchange or sharing

-          knowledge transfer

ex post

-          downstream

-          subsequent

ex post facto

-          after the event

-          retrospectively

external action

-          foreign policy

external relations

-          relations with partner countries / the outside world



-          fishing

-          fishing industry

-          fishing ground

-          fisheries resources, not fish stocks

-          sustainable fishing, not sustainable fisheries

Fisheries is abstract and confusing due to its double meaning (meaning both the business / industry of catching fish and a place where fish are caught).


needs explanation:

  • modernising or reforming labour markets (combining flexibility for employers with security for workers)
  • protecting people not jobs
  • making the job market flexible while maximising security for workers.


means to predict or forecast the future, usually involving a crystal ball

Don’t confuse with the French prévoir/ prévu and similar expressions in other Romance languages. The French terms are often used to refer to the provisions laid down in legislation.

In this sort of context, the best straight equivalent is provide for.


-          probably

-          slated to

-          planned

-          forecast

-          meant to or for

-          stipulated

-          scheduled

-          envisaged in

-          set out in

for the purpose of

-          to

for the reason that

-          because

free circulation (on the EU market)

-          are or can be freely sold throughout the EU

freedom of establishment     

Explain for non-experts:

-          (businesses) setting up outside their home country

-          freedom to set up (and do) business in any country

-          operate abroad

free movement of workers (e.g. promoting this in the EU)

-          helping workers to find jobs in another EU country

frontier worker

-          working in one country, living in another

-          cross-border commuter

-          cross-border worker

fundamental freedoms (etc.)

-          democratic values and practices



-          comprehensive

-          joint

-          overall

-          integrated

good governance

needs explanation:

  • sound / honest government
  • integrity in government
  • rule of law (essentially ‘fighting corruption’)


-          management

-          organisation

grandfather (verb)

needs explanation:

  • to exempt existing practices from a new law, so the law only applies to people who start new practices of that type.

green paper

needs explanation:

  • consultation paper/document
  • discussion paper/document


heads of state and government

-          EU leaders

hierarchical superior

-          boss

-          (line) manager

-          immediate superior

-          head of unit

-          director

-          etc.

High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy  

(depending on context)

-          foreign policy chief

human capital (investment in …)

(depending on context and target audience)

-          people and their skills

-          education and training

human capital development

-          training for staff


if this is not the case

-          if not

if this is the case

-          if so

in case (that)

-          if


-          fair


-          IT

-          computer or computing (as adjective)

-          computerised

-          electronic


Unlike French, information in English is used in the singular only – a piece of information, some information

in order to

-          to

in relation to

-          about


-          scheme

-          programme

-          fund (depending on context)

inter alia

-          including

-          partly

-          for example

-          among other things

-          in particular

intergovernmental conference

-          negotiations

-          talks

-          constitutional convention

-          2007 IGC = formal treaty talks or reform treaty talks

in the event of/that

-          if

in the period 2006-2009

-          in 2006-09

in toto

-          completely

-          as a whole

-          entirely

investing in human capital

say what is really meant:

-          (workforce) training

-          improving (workers’) skills

-          training and education

-          hiring new staff

in view of the fact that

-          as

-          because

IUU fishing

-          illegal fishing (acronym stands for Illegal, Unreported & Unregulated)


level (e.g. at EU/national/regional level)

Don’t overuse. Useful alternatives are:

-          across the EU

-          nationally

-          regionally

-          in every (EU) country

Lisbon strategy/agenda

risk of confusion with Lisbon treaty, add or replace with an explanatory phrase, e.g.:

  • EU competitiveness strategy or drive
  • EU strategy for economic growth and job creation
  • EU growth and jobs strategy
  • EU growth and job creation
  • drive to develop a leading-edge knowledge economy, etc.



Refers to the process of taking into account goals such as gender‑equality & climate‑protection when developing programmes, laws, etc. that at first glance might seem unrelated.

-          enshrining/anchoring in law and practice

-          establishing across the board

-          in all policies

-          X in other EU policies

Member States

In all contexts except the most legal, we recommend:

-          EU countries

-          EU members

-          national governments, national authorities (particularly when talking about something they must do, such as transpose a directive.)


often methods is all that is meant

millennium development goals

-          UN development goals

-          poverty-reduction goals


Ask yourself if you can’t use a more specific term:

-          field visit

-          inspection visit

-          working visit

-          fact-finding mission

-          on-site inspection


In English, this not‑so‑common term makes one think of, say, the physical ability to walk. More natural‑sounding alternatives include:

-          (sustainable, green) transport

-          travel

-          personal mobility

-          relocation

-          migration (for work)

-          moving around Europe (to live, work, study, retire)

-          borderless XY

-          study/training abroad

-          mobility week = describe using terms such as sustainable travel, annual event

mobile jobseekers

-          people looking for work outside their home region/country


-          arrangements

-          procedures

-          terms of implementation

-          details/rules for implementation

monetary stability

-          stable prices (i.e. low inflation and reduced external currency shocks)

multiannual financial framework (MFF)

needs explanation:

  • medium-term EU budget
  • budget plans for the next 7 years
  • 7-year EU budget
  • budget cap
  • cap on spending


Ask yourself if it’s not clearer to say what is really meant, e.g.:

-          (foreign) languages

-          multilingual communication

-          foreign language use

-          language policy

-          learning languages

-          language learning

-          language skills.


negative evolution (of the economy)

-          (economic) downturn

-          decline

-          slump

(European) Neighbourhood policy

needs explanation:

  • EU support programme for countries around its eastern and southern borders / countries in eastern Europe and the Mediterranean



Add an explanation:

-          EU anti-fraud office

on condition that

-          if

on the subject of

-          about

open coordination (method of)

-          voluntary policy coordination by EU governments

ordinary legislative procedure

needs explanation:

  • the standard way EU legislation is now adopted

owing to the fact that

-          because


payment service providers

depending on context, say what is really meant, e.g.:

-          banks

-          credit card companies

Permanent Representative

-          (top) EU diplomat

points of fact and law

-          the facts of a case and how the relevant laws apply to them

post hoc

-          after this


-          unstable (employment)

prejudice (without prejudice to, does not prejudge)

-          notwithstanding does not affect

-          detract from the terms of

-          has no bearing on

premium (CAP)

-          allowance

-          subsidy

Don’t confuse with French prime.

Presidency (of the council)

for non-EU-experts explain or use alternative:

-          the 6-month rotating/unofficial leadership of the EU

-          six‑month stint in charge of EU affairs

-          country in charge of, at the helm (of), etc.


-          active

-          energetic


-          finalising specific funding allocations

-          allocating funding


The French projet does not always translate as project in English. For example, projet de budget means draft budget and projet de loi means bill or draft law.


add explanation for non-EU-experts:

  • limiting EU action to the minimum needed (to achieve the goals in the Treaties)


-          annex

provided that

-          if


-          laws

-          rules

-          points of (EU law)

public procurement

from contractor’s perspective:

-          public (or government) contracts

-          tenders

punctual / punctually

means on time; not sporadic, occasional or localised.

Don’t confuse with the French ponctuel and the German punktuell.

pursuant to

-          under

pursuing non-economic activities

-          not in paid work


rapid alert

-          early warning

reflection group

-          high‑level working party

-          panel on future challenges / the future direction of


-          on

-          about

Regulation (Directive, Decision)

These are specific types of legislation, which experts will know and understand. For the general public, laws or rules is probably enough. But ask yourself whether extra information would be useful to the reader:

  • Directives set a goal that all EU countries must achieve, but it is up to the individual countries how they achieve it.
  • Regulations are directly applicable across the EU.
  • Decisions are directly applicable to either an EU country or an individual company, e.g. when the Commission rules on proposed mergers or fines companies for abusing their dominant market position.

reinforce (strengthen)

Avoid overuse – from French renforcer

-          improve

-          enhance

-          consolidate

-          boost

-          energise

-          increase

-          tighten

-          revitalise

-          expand

-          step up

-          put greater emphasis on

-          focus more on

relating to

-          on


-          relations

remunerated employment

-          paid work


Don’t confuse with the French reporter, which means to postpone to a later date, or to carry over money in accounts.

Representation, Delegation

-          (local) EU mission

-          (local) EU office

-          EU’s representative office

-          EU office in X country

Delegation in English implies a group of representatives sent for a strictly limited time span. Representation is too generic.

Research framework programme (e.g. 7th research framework programme / FP7)

-          EU’s (past) research (funding) programme

-          EU’s main funding programme for scientific research, Horizon 2020


(depending on context)

-          time and money


means to value or honour someone or something

Don’t confuse with the French respecter, which means to meet (a deadline), observe (principles and rules), comply (with rules) or uphold.


(depending on target audience)

-          (making and receiving) mobile calls (while) abroad



-          shortage

Schengen area

for non-experts add explanation:

-          no‑border zone

-          border‑free area

-          passport‑free travel


means reasonable

Don’t confuse with the French sensible and the German sensibel, which mean sensitive.

‘Six pack’

needs explanation, e.g.:

Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

In most cases, you can use small businesses instead. Note that even the Commission is using the term in legislation (see Small Business Act).

Use SMEs only if your readers will likely know it so well that they search for it. Even then, work alternative terms into your text:

-          small businesses / firms

-          small and mid-size businesses / companies

small and medium-sized businesses / companies


-          (social) welfare

-          social security

social dialogue

For non-experts:

-          labour relations

-          staff-management negotiations/relations

-          employers and unions

-          a constructive relationship/dialogue between employers and workers

social enterprise

needs explanation:

  • businesses whose primary purpose is social, rather than to maximise profit distribution to private owners or shareholders
  • businesses that have philanthropic goals, like charities and non-profit bodies
  • often a non-profit organisation

social partners

for non-experts:

-          employers and (trade) unions

-          employers and workers

-          employers and workers’ groups

-          employers’ groups and workers movements


-          social justice/fairness

-          support

-          cooperation

Solidarity has a narrower usage in English than French.

Southern Mediterranean

-          North Africa

(this is what’s meant)


-          specific features

-          characteristics (of x)

stabilisation & association agreement

add explanation or use alternative:

-          pre-membership talks or stage


specify what groups are actually being consulted, e.g.:

-          groups affected by (our) policy (on …)

-          groups concerned/involved…

-          consumers/workers

-          business, authorities – and their representative groups (trade federations, consumer organisations, unions)

-          producers, retailers, etc.

state aid

For non-experts:

-          government support (to companies)

-          state support

-          support from public authorities

-          public assistance to companies

-          government-backed programmes


-          review

subsidiarity (principle)

for non-experts add explanation, e.g.:

  • Principle whereby the EU only takes action if it’s more effective than nationally, regionally or locally taken action
  • does not respect subsidiarity or proportionality = exceeds the EU’s powers or remit
  • decentralisation (principle)
  • prioritising action by national governments

sunset clause

clause put into agreements etc. to ensure they don’t run past a certain date


-          complementary

-          mutual

-          in association with

-          pooling resources

-          more cost-effective

-          ability to work effectively in collaboration with

-          work better together

-          to coordinate with

-          economies of scale


taxes on labour

-          income tax

-          payroll tax (employers’ social security contributions)

tertiary education

-          post-secondary education

-          higher and further education

the majority of

-          most


-          issue-based

-          issue-specific

thereby, therefore, thus

-          in this way

-          so

there is, there are

-          Often unnecessary.

-          Instead of there are three issues facing the prime minister, write

-          three issues face the prime minister or

-          The prime minister faces three issues.

third countries

-          non-EU countries

-          countries outside the EU


-          maximum amount

-          limit

-          ceiling (amount)

Treaty of Rome

-          EU’s founding treaty

TV without frontiers

-          EU broadcasting rules

-          rules on audiovisual content



Not used in English as a synonym for EU.


vade mecum

-          handbook

-          manual

-          (operating) instructions


-          confirm



-          if

white paper

needs explanation, e.g.:

  • EU (policy) paper
  • EU proposals
  • set of proposals
  • proposal paper
  • blueprint

within the framework of

-          under

with reference to

-          about

with regard to

-          about

with respect to

-          on

wholesale energy markets

for non-experts add explanation:

  • markets where gas and electricity generating and trading companies supply energy to energy retailers (the companies that sell us our gas and electricity)




-          young people

-          the young


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